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Mountain Pass Charting: What should be on the sectionals?

Mountain passes are important features, particularly for VFR pilots on cross-country flights.  Terrain is often a limiting feature for those of us that don’t fly in the flight levels and knowing how to navigate through mountainous areas is a key part of pre-flight planning.  The indication of a mountain pass on Sectionals is one feature to look for, especially when flying in an unfamiliar area. But how well are mountain passes denoted on the flight charts?  AOPA recently raised this issue at the Aeronautical Charting Meeting, a national group that meets twice a year to consider charting specifications, and is starting an effort to review the charting of mountain passes.  Are there passes that should be charted but aren’t?  Passes charted that shouldn’t be? And what more could we do to help pilots successfully navigate major mountain passes?

Mountain Passes Missing?

An oblique view of Atigun Pass from the southwest. Pilots turning into the pass can’t see conditions ahead and may not have room to reverse course if encountering poor visibility on the other side.

Alaska has some significant mountain ranges that pilots must navigate to get around the state.  Today, the mountain pass chart symbol is the primary clue to where the “gaps” in the terrain are located, that mark significant passes.  But not all passes are created equal.  Some are pretty benign low altitude corridors, often carved out by streams, and widened by glaciers, with no big surprises.  Others are little more than gaps between mountain peaks, with sharp turns, that may be very challenging to fly.  Perhaps the poster child of the later case is Atigun Pass, in the eastern Brooks Range, and the scene of numerous aircraft accidents over the years.  It is a narrow notch, requiring the pilot to make a pair of ninety degree turns—without being able to see what is on the other side.  Yet, only seventeen nautical miles to the west is a much more friendly pass that connects the North Fork of the Koyukuk with the Itkillik River.  Charting this location would at least let pilots know there is an alternative they should check out during their flight planning activities.  Should we add this pass to the Sectional?

While Atigun Pass is charted on the Sectional, 17 miles west is an uncharted pass, at a lower altitude with more forgiving terrain that locals normally use when transiting this section of the Brooks Range.

Mountain Passes Not Needed?

In contrast, there may be passes on the charts that were imported from USGS maps that aren’t helpful to pilots. Holmes Pass, also in the eastern Brooks Range, was named by a Robert Marshall in 1930, traveling by dog sled. Should this be on Sectional charts today

At the same time we examine at this topic, are there passes shown on the charts that may not be needed, which may lure pilots to fly through them.  Passes on flight charts are typically imported from USGS topographic maps.  Recognizing that locally any notch in the terrain can serve as a route through higher terrain, the features assigned on topographic maps may have little to do with aviation.  Again looking at the eastern Brooks Range, consider Holmes Pass, about 30 nautical miles southwest of Atigun.  According to the Dictionary of Alaska Place Names, published by USGS, it was named by Robert Marshall in 1930—a time when he was exploring the area by dog sled.  (Marshall’s book, An Arctic Village provides a fascinating account of his activities and what conditions were like at the time.)  Does this pass have value for aviation purposes today?  If not, perhaps we should remove it.

The path ahead
To address these issues, AOPA is in the process of setting up a working group, with the Alaska Airmen Association and other industry stakeholders, to examine these questions.  While the effort will initially focus on Alaska, the goal is to make a recommendation back to the FAA and Aeronautical Charting Meeting which would address these topics nationally.  While this process is just getting underway, I am seeking input on these two questions:

(1) Do you know of significant mountain passes not on Sectionals today that you think should be added?

(2) Are there mountain passes charted today that you don’t believe are used, and should be removed?

Please feel free to email me ([email protected]) with any candidates corresponding to either of these questions.

Watch for more information on this topic in the months ahead!

 

[This article was originally published in the January-March, 2020 edition of the Alaska Airmen Association’s Transponder]

Alaska Backcountry Airstrip survey: Do you use them?

Backcountry airstrips serve an important role in Alaska’s aviation system.  Over the past couple years, a Backcountry Airstrips Working Group, led by the Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities (DOT), has been exploring this topic, and just released a survey for pilots to weigh-in on their use of this often-unnoticed component of our aviation infrastructure.  If you use back-country airstrips, please take a few minutes to share your thoughts, and identify any concerns you may have on this topic.  Here is a link directly to the survey, which runs through May 10th. https://goo.gl/forms/6aPBJ7h3BbzS7oxq1

What is a backcountry airstrip?
While the international, regional and community airports are familiar to us, there is another network of “facilities” scattered around the state that is often overlooked.  These are airstrips that were built to provide access for some purpose, often a mining claim or mineral exploration project, which has since gone away—but the airstrip remains.  Depending on the other resources in the area, given Alaska’s vast size and lack of road system, these airstrips typically serve other needs, generally to access public lands. Uses might include establishing a camp, in support of a hunting trip or other recreational activity. Depending on the adjacent land ownership, it may provide access to remote cabin sites.  On a river, it could be the transfer point to drop off or pick up people from float trips.  When the weather turns bad, or in any other kind of emergency, having a place to land is a safety consideration.  Finally, backcountry airstrips can also serve as staging areas to support access for more distant off-field landing sites.

Backcountry versus Off Field landing areas
Defining what a backcountry airstrip is might seem like an easy task, but it has taken quite a bit of discussion.  The working group definition includes landing areas that are “improved” although they may have little or no maintenance routinely performed.  It is important to differentiate between backcountry airstrips, and true off-field landing areas—which means a gravel bar, hill top, or other terrain feature that one is able to land on.  From the air, there wouldn’t necessarily be noticeable features, such as trees cleared to create a safety area, or modification of the natural landscape to make it a landing area.  Fortunately, in Alaska we are allowed to perform off-field landings on most public lands, unless regulations have specifically been adopted to declare the area off-limits.  The working group is not addressing off-field landing areas, but does recognize that one of the potential uses of a backcountry airstrip is to serve as a staging area to reach off-field landing locations.

Kansas Creek, in the central Alaska Range, has provided access for hunting and other uses for about fifty years. In the context of this discussion, it would be considered a backcountry airstrip.

 

This off-field landing area, along the Ivishak River on the north side of the Brooks Range is an un-improved piece of tundra that just happens to be flat and firm enough to land on. It would not be defined as a backcountry airstrip in this discussion.

Case Study: Gold King Creek
While every airport has its own story, Gold King Creek (AK7) is an case worth examining.  Located 40 nautical miles south of Fairbanks, in the foothills of the Alaska Range, the 2,500 foot airstrip was originally built at the site of a microwave communications station. The facility connected the military radar station at Clear with the Cold War era “White Alice” communication system that linked Alaska to the lower 48.  Fuel for the generator that powered the relay site was flown in, from Delta I believe, to keep the facility operating around the clock.  When the relay site was no longer needed, it was shut down, and years later the tower removed, but the airstrip remains. Miners, hunters, seismologists, berry pickers and others continued to use the airstrip, which is on stable ground, and doesn’t require much in the way of maintenance.

The federal government eventually transferred the land to the State of Alaska’s Department of Natural Resources (DNR), who later allocated recreational land parcels near the airstrip, some of which have inhabited cabins today.  The property containing the airstrip was transferred from DNR to DOT, more recently. Prior to that happening, we almost lost Gold King off the charts completely.

An aerial view of Gold King airstrip, with cabin sites off the edge of the runway.

Charting history of Gold King
When owned by the federal government, the airstrip was charted as a Private Use facility (see figure below).  After the military use ceased, for a while it disappeared from the charts completely.  With the transfer from federal government to State of Alaska ownership, it was again charted, initially shown as closed, and with no information about the length or elevation of the airstrip.  In the late 1990’s, a Military Operations Area (MOA) created that covered this area.  Because Gold King was a known entity, a MOA exclusion area was defined around it, up to 1,500 ft agl. The cut-out helps prevent an aircraft just lifting off the runway from coming nose to nose with a high-speed jet on a training exercise.  Today, the airstrip is charted with more complete information for pilots, including a CTAF frequency.  Charting is one of the issues that needs to be considered for other backcountry airstrips in the state.

This figure shows the charting history of Gold King, from its time as a communications support facility, to when it disappeared from the charts completely, and slowly back to having more complete information today, including a cut-out under a Military Operations Area.

 Gateway to Public Land
While most back-country airstrips are remote, it doesn’t necessarily mean some of them might not be on the road-system.  A notable example is the airstrip at Happy Valley, some 65 nautical miles south of the Deadhorse Airport (SCC) at Prudhoe Bay.  This 5,000 foot airstrip was built during construction of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline in the 1970’s to support the construction camp located there, along the Sagavarnirktok River, and on the haul-road that today connects the oilfields on the north slope with the rest of Alaska. After the construction, the camp was removed, but the herc-strip sized runway remained.

Today, it serves as an important staging area in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range. Far enough inland to often avoid coastal fog, yet distant enough from the peaks of the Brooks Range to escape some of the weather conditions associated with the mountains.  It’s location on the haul road, which is maintained year-round, makes it a critical jumping off facility for guides, scientific studies, game surveys, as well as a key emergency strip when weather precludes getting to the coast, or through the mountains.

I have personally experienced the benefits of the Happy Valley airstrip.  Late one fall, the weather was deteriorating to the point we couldn’t make it through the Brooks Range to return to Fairbanks.  After tying up a pair of Super Cubs at Happy Valley, we had to hitchhike in what became a ground-blizzard to Deadhorse, and catch the jet back to town.  Many days later, we drove up the haul-road to pre-heat and fly the airplanes back south of the range.  Yet this airstrip is not listed on a flight chart, nor is any information provided about it in the Alaska Chart Supplement.  While not advocating that all back-country strips should necessarily be charted, this is one that needs to be on the charts so pilots can find it, when needed.

Happy Valley Airstrip. Not what we normally think of as a backcountry airstrip, this former pipeline camp on the Dalton Highway is used today, and should be recognized as an airstrip.

Backcountry Survey
Backcountry airstrips are an important, and often neglected component of our airport system.  Now that DOT has started looking at this segment of our airports, it is important that the people that use them speak up.  The online survey provides an opportunity to identify the issues you think are important when it comes to these landing areas.  Under current budget conditions, we can’t expect the State of Alaska to devote a lot of resources to them, but recognizing they exist and perhaps taking the first few steps to protect them, could make a great deal of difference in the years to come.

Please take a few minutes to take the survey! https://goo.gl/forms/6aPBJ7h3BbzS7oxq1