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Category: Tim McAdams (page 1 of 16)

Increase Your Service Ceiling

Sunday was a great GA day for me. It started off as a Pilots and Paws rescue flight for a one-eyed cat named Gio. Since I was headed up to the San Francisco Bay Area, I thought I would contact my 96 year-old pen pal/friend William Mason [Army Air Corps Flight Instructor at Rankin Field [Tulare, CA] with my Dad, and brother to uber famous Sammy Mason] to see if we could meet up for a burger at the 29er Diner. The combination of a charity flight, using a friendly small airport and meeting with a WWII aviator makes for a perfect GA day.

As a recently minted instrument rated pilot I was excited to get a little “actual” with the smoke and haze from the horrible Thomas fire. I completed all my flight planning with Foreflight, Skyvector, and the NOAA site for weather… severe clear except for smoke in vicinity of departure airport, Santa Maria, CA. I filed the flight plan online and got an email from Foreflight that it was received by flight service [she thinks “What a rock star I am for using all this wonderful technology.”]

Originally Pilots and Paws had requested Santa Rosa Airport, which is a wonderful larger airport, but, as anyone who has flown with me to Oshkosh knows, I love to go to small GA airports and support more “mom and pop” FBOs. So I asked for Petaluma and received that as a final destination.

When I left the house in morning the sky looked like dusk instead of dawn due to the smoke. I could see that San Luis Obispo was clear, so I thought at most, I would be in the smoke [IFR] for a few minutes. Opening the hangar door I could see a fine layer of ash all over my airplane cover. As I loaded up the plane I looked out and saw the tiniest of tiny suns trying to burn through the smoke. [Gio was not able to make it to Santa Maria due to the high winds and turbulence in Riverside, but I decided to head north anyway.]

I got my taxi clearance and asked tower for my IFR clearance to Petaluma. The next bit of news was not so happy “6619U I have no IFR flight plan for you in the system.” Drat! I mentioned that I had even gotten an email confirmation. Hmmm. I let the lovely tower folks [really they are, no sarcasm there] know when I was done taxiing I would figure it out. Figure it out I did. Guess who filed the plan for a WEEK from today? Me, yup me. Duh. Luckily I had the routing, so no worries, got it put into the system. I departed on the obstacle departure procedure and up to the Bay Area. The smoke was maybe 800 feet above ground level… maybe. I was in the smoke, I mean in the smoke. Could not see anything, nothing but white. “Okay sister, this is what you are trained for, instrument scan, track the course, you can do this. Probably won’t be but a minute or two.” Yeah—no. Just under thirty minutes later I come out of the smoke right over the Paso Robles airport. I knew that my VOR tracking was not the best while in the smoke. I was disappointed that I sort of got flustered but I was able to just regain my composure and soldier on.

I flew up the Pacific coast and the CAVU day was spectacular. ATC was super busy and very helpful. I asked for the Bay Tour [as did about a hundred others] and was grinning ear to ear flying over the Golden Gate Bridge, Alcatraz, Angel Island and the San Francisco bay. After the tour and the photos, I turned to Petaluma [O69].

There were six other airplanes in the pattern at O69/Petaluma. There were a few students working the pattern, a Waco buzzing around, two helicopters practicing taxiing, and even another Mooney landing right before me. The fuel price is one of the best in the Bay Area/wine country. I taxied to a transient tie down and then struggled a bit to push Maggie back into the spot. Before I knew it a local named John was there asking if I needed a hand, which I gladly accepted.

We got on the waiting list for indoor seating at the 29er Diner and the next few hours were spent with Bill and his daughter. We got to enjoy a great lunch, catch up, talk about aviation and some of his glory days. Bill owned a Stearman for many years, which he flew across country with his wife.

When it was time to leave I made sure to check the date and time on my flight plan and hit “File”— voila it went through. I did get vectored in a way from ATC that reminded me of an old high school cheer “lean to the left, lean to the right, stand up, sit down, fight, fight, fight.” The routing on the way home was offshore quite a bit. I don’t know about anyone else, but I swear I hear every single engine hiccup when I am over water. On the way home I was at 9000, and got a beautiful and enduring view of the sunset off my right side. I knew that the smoke would be formidable on the approach into the Central Coast. I descended down from 9000 to 8000, then down to 5000. Under the smoke it was black as night. I requested a precision approach from ATC. I thought it best to fly an approach I had practiced many times that took me right to runway 12.

Between the black of night, and the ash build up on the windscreen, and the general haziness from the smoke, the approach was challenging. I did have a little bit of an optical illusion just above the aim point. It was hard for me to tell how high I was above the runway to begin the flare. I should have maybe looked out the left window, but I didn’t. Landing was rock star– which is so wonderful. All in all I had an hour of actual.

We are so fortunate to have many ways to give back in service to others with our airplanes and airports. I try to remember all these aspects when I am planning a trip. Am I flying an empty airplane? Is that the best use of the space? Perhaps there is someone who would like to come along, or better yet a Pilot n Paws, Angel Flight, LightHawk or other charitable cause. What is your destination airport? Where will you be spending your dollars for fuel, lodging and food? The day cost me a couple hundred dollars in fuel. I look at this as money spent buying memories. That is really money well spent. I have the memory of my first flight into IMC, connecting with a WWII aviator, of wanting to help a little one-eyed kitty and of course being part of a great big GA family.

As this year comes to a close it is a good time to reflect on the past and look toward the New Year. Maybe 2018 will be the year you add that endorsement, or get your instrument rating, or get serious about buying into a club, or donate your time in service to others.

Jolie Lucas is a Mooney owner, licensed psychotherapist, and instrument rated pilot. She is the Founder of two grass-roots general aviation service groups: Mooney Ambassadors and the Friends of Oceano Airport. Presently Jolie is the Vice President of the California Pilots Association. She is the 2010 AOPA Joseph Crotti Award recipient for GA Advocacy. She is the Director and Executive Producer of the documentary: Boots on the Ground: the Men & Women who made Mooney©. She co-created Mooney Girls Mooney Girls and Right Seat Ready!© She is the creator of Pilot Plus One© She is an aviation educator and writer. Email: [email protected] Twitter: Mooney4Me

Bell 505

Heli-Expo 2014, held last week in AnaheimCalifornia, is the annual worldwide helicopter convention. At the show, Bell Helicopter announced the Bell 505 JetRanger X. The latest generation of the JetRanger series that started 50 years ago. Scheduled for its first flight later this year, the company has started signing letters of intent. The new model is aimed at a wide variety of missions, including utility, corporate, private owners and training schools.

Based on the original Bell 206B, the Bell 505 JetRanger X is a five-seat, single-engine turbine helicopter with a cruise speed of 125 knots, range of 360 nautical miles and a useful load of 1,500 pounds. The fuselage has been updated to provide a sleek modern look that features increased cabin volume and side clam shell doors. The cockpit improvements include the Garmin G1000H Integrated Avionics Suite and wrap-around windscreens providing a wide field of view. The engine has been changed to the 504 shp Turbomeca Arrius 2R engine with dual channel Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC), an engine data recorder and a 3000 hour TBO. The rotor system retains the two-bladed, high inertia system that gave the JetRanger its reputation for excellent autorotation capabilities.

Bell Helicopter has also announced it will build the helicopter at a newly constructed assembly facility at the Lafayette Regional Airport in Louisiana.  Also new is a website (www.bell505.com) where customers can custom build and order the helicopter online.

505

505a

Mast moment

A rigid (or sometimes called hinge-less) rotor system is capable of transmitting high bending forces to the main rotor shaft. When a pilot makes a cyclic movement causing the main rotor disc to tilt, the fuselage wants to follow. In flight, with a rigid rotor the mast bending moment is low. However, when the fuselage is in contact with the ground and cannot follow the main rotor disc the bending moment can be very high. 

This type of rotor system is used on the helicopters designed and built by the German manufacturer MBB (now Airbus Helicopters). Because large cyclic displacements on the ground have the potential to damage the mast assembly, a mast moment indicator (MMI) is installed. The gauge is a single dimension indicator that shows the total moment being applied to the mast. When the gauge reads high, the pilot has to figure out what direction to move the cyclic to reduce the mast moment. Over time, experience makes knowing how to keep the mast moment low a natural reaction, however, pilots new to these types of helicopters would have to be very careful not to exceed the limit. Recently, to help reduce any possible confusion a new style gauge has been developed. It is two dimensional (using a circle instead of a straight line) which makes knowing the correct direction to move the cyclic control easier. 

Normal pick-ups and set-downs require care as to not exceed the limits on the MMI. Generally, this is not difficult. However, slope landings and running landings can be more challenging. In these situations, the pilot needs to be comfortable with the MMI being close to limits and making very small cyclic adjustments. If a limit is exceeded, the amount (in percentage) and duration dictate how extensive an inspection or repair will be.

Older style MMI

Older style MMI

                   

Newer electronic single dimension MMI

Newer electronic single dimension MMI

 

 

 

 

Latest two dimension MMI

Latest two dimension MMI

NTSB top 10

On January 16, 2014 the National Transportation Safety Board released its 2014 Most Wanted List, the top 10 advocacy and awareness priorities for the agency for the year. With the high accident rate in the helicopter industry, helicopter operations have been added to the list. According to the NTSB, between January 2003 and May 2013, 1,470 helicopter accidents have occurred, with 477 fatalities and 274 serious injuries.

The NTSB understands that helicopters are used for a range of operations, each of which presents unique challenges. For example, helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) operators transport seriously ill patients and donor organs to emergency care facilities, often creating pressure to conduct these operations safely and quickly in various environmental conditions.  These include flying in marginal weather, at night, and landing at unfamiliar areas. Air tour operators and airborne law enforcement units face similar issues.

These and other operational issues have led to an unacceptably high number of helicopter accidents and the NTSB stated there is no simple solution for reducing helicopter accidents. However, they have recommended some safety improvements to mitigate risk. For instance, helicopter operators should develop and implement safety management systems that include sound risk management practices, particularly with regard to inspection and maintenance. Moreover, establishing best practices for both maintenance and flight personnel that include duty-time regulations that take into consideration factors like start time, workload, shift changes, circadian rhythms, adequate rest time, and other factors shown by recent research, scientific evidence, and current industry experience to affect crew alertness. Operators should also make sure that their pilots have access to training that includes scenarios such as inadvertent flight into instrument meteorological conditions and autorotation. Also noted as invaluable when an accident occurs is a crash-resistant flight recorder system that will assist investigators, regulatory agencies, and operators in identifying what went wrong and how to keep it from happening again.

Recent NTSB investigations of 3 accidents resulted in the issuance of 27 safety recommendations pertaining to issues that include risk management, pilot training, maintenance, and flight recorders.  These include a June 2009 accident near Santa Fe, New Mexico, involving a helicopter on a search and rescue mission, an August 2011 HEMS accident near Mosby, Missouri and a December 2011 air tour accident near Las Vegas, Nevada.

During the last 10 years the NTSB has issued over 100 safety recommendations. If the high helicopter accident rate continues, the FAA could step in and enact regulatory changes that would force changes on the entire industry.

 

High voltage

The flight characteristics of a helicopter make it suitable for a variety of interesting missions. One such job is the repair of live high voltage lines. The voltage on these lines is typically between one hundred thousand to one million volts.

A typical configuration uses a platform mounted to the helicopter’s skids with a wire attached to the helicopter’s airframe. The lineman sits on the edge of the platform as the pilot hovers the helicopter next to the line that needs repair. In some cases, the pilot must maneuver the lineman within several inches of the power line. Because this is considered an external load operation, the platform can be jettisoned. However, the lineman’s harness is attached to the helicopter.

The helicopter and the high voltage wire have different electrical potentials, so to equalize them a metal wand is brought close to the wire. When the wand is close enough the voltage jumps across causing an arc. Once the wand makes contact with the wire, a clamp is connected to the platform with a 5 or 6 foot cable that is attached to the helicopter insuring the voltage potential remains equal. The wand is then removed and the repairs can begin. In the event of an emergency the clamp will break away from the power line. The helicopter now has a high electrical potential and the pilot must be careful to not let the helicopter get to close to an object (a tree, for example) that will allow the voltage a path to ground. This will significantly increase the current flow through the helicopter causing high heat and serious damage to equipment and personnel.

Several accidents have happened from engine failures or the rotor system coming in contact with part of the power line infrastructure. One such accident happen in August of 2013 and according to the NTSB the helicopter was conducting an electrical power line construction operation with a lineman standing outside on the skid. The wire was temporarily suspended by a hoist and the lineman was inserting a fiber shoe to attach the wire to the arm of the tower. While the helicopter was hovering next to the wire at about 200 feet above ground level the hoist slipped and the wire fell onto the top of the helicopter’s skid. Control was briefly lost and four of the helicopter’s main rotor blades impacted the tower resulting in substantial damage to the main rotor blades. The pilot quickly regained control and made an emergency landing in tall corn about 200 feet from the accident location.  Fortunately, the pilot did an excellent job and no one was injured.

Even when everything goes right, high voltage power lines create a very strong electromagnetic field. This field produces an induced current that anyone close to the line will feel along their skin. As such, the pilot and lineman wear a special suit with a metal weave that allows the current to flow around the skin. Even with the suit, the sensation has been described as a feeling of pins and needles.

BK117

The BK117 is a twin-engine, medium size helicopter developed jointly by Messerschmitt Bolkow Blohm (MBB) of Germany and Kawasaki of Japan. In early 1977 the two companies signed an agreement to share costs and produce two prototypes each. Although development took longer than originally planned, Japanese and German authorities certified the helicopter in late 1982 followed by the United States in early 1983.

The BK117 is a compact design with a total length of 43 feet and a main rotor diameter of 36 feet. MBB used a hinge-less rotor system with four main rotor blades attached to a titanium hub. A high tail rotor and rear clamshell doors made the BK117 very popular in the EMS industry.

The first version was the BK117 A-1 powered by two Lycoming gas turbine engines. Two major problems with the A1 were the low gross weight (6280 lbs) and a lack of tail rotor thrust and stability. In 1985 MBB introduced the A3, with a larger tail rotor, an optional yaw stabilization augmentation system (YSAS) and a gross weight increase to 7,055 pounds. A year later came the A-4, with increased take-off limits and an improved tail rotor hub. All A-series BK117s use the 650 shp Lycoming LTS-101- 650B1 turbine engine de-rated to 550 shp.

In 1987 MBB introduced the B1, which used the more powerful 750 shp LTS-101- 750B1 engine (still de-rated to 550 shp) and the YSAS became standard equipment. Next was the B2, with a beefier landing gear, shorter pitch change horns to improve main rotor response time and a gross weight increase to 7,385 pounds. Also available at the same time was a C1 model with Turbomeca Arriel 1E engines rated at 708 shp for better hot and high performance.

BK117

BK117

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 1992, MBB and the helicopter division of Aerospatiale merged to form Eurocopter. Under the newly formed company, the BK117 underwent several upgrades including a new forward cockpit design with modern avionics. It carries the FAA designation BK117 C2, but is marketed as the EC145. Powered by a pair of Turbomeca Arriel 1E2 engines rated at 738 shp each, the gross weight jumped to 7903 lbs. In 2006, the US Army signed a contract for 345 EC145 aircraft for use as a light utility helicopter. Known as the UH 72A (Lakota), the program has been a major success for the US Army.

UH 72A Lakota

UH 72A Lakota

EC145

EC145

 

Scheduled for certification in 2014 is the EC145 T2 featuring new FADEC equipped Arriel 2E engines delivering 1039 shp each. Additional improvements include a Fenestron tail rotor, a 4-axis autopilot and a gross weight increase to 8047 lbs.

EC145 T2

EC145 T2

Volocopter

Over the years there have been many different inventors and engineers who have attempted to built vertical lift aircraft. The single main rotor with a smaller anti-torque rotor emerged as the most popular. With recent advances in technology, innovative engineers have been attempting to build a practical electric-powered helicopter. As it turns out, the single main rotor design is not the most efficient – efficiency is necessary for an electric-powered helicopter to be capable of lifting a reasonable payload. As such, engineers are designing very different vertical lift vehicles. One of these is the 2-person Volocopter and its first successful flight was November 17, 2013.

Designed and built in Germany, the Volocopter has an especially unique design. It uses 18 rotors, each powered by its own electric motor. They are mounted on a light weight carbon fiber ring above the cabin. Several on-board computers monitor and control the speed of each rotor system to achieve directional control – eliminating the need for any type of mechanical linkage. The system is designed so that if one of the motors fails (actually, several can fail at the same time) the aircraft can still safely land. Additionally, there is a ballistic parachute system for added safety.

Currently, the biggest limitation is battery life. The battery allows a flight time of 20 minutes, however, the company believes that advances in battery technology will extend the flight time in the near future. As an interim solution, the Volocopter will be built as a hybrid which will allow several hours of flight time. This is achieved by using a combustion engine to power a generator that supplies the batteries and motors with electricity.

The manufacturer, E-volo, claims the production aircraft will be extremely cost effective to operate, very quiet and easy to fly. More information can be found on their website: www.e-volo.com.

vc200_first-flight_13

vc200_first-flight_04

 

 

Main rotor rotation

In basic terms, a helicopter’s main rotor system is what provides lift and thrust. The rotational speed (rpm) is held constant and the pitch angle of the blades is varied to change the amount of lift and thrust. Engineers look at many different variables when designing a rotor system and one is the direction the rotor spins, clockwise or counter clockwise (when viewed from above). Unlike the tail rotor, from an aerodynamic efficiency standpoint there is no difference between the two directions. As it turns out, in most cases the direction of rotation can be associated with the country of origin. For example, as a general rule, helicopters manufactured in the United States (and some other countries like Germany) turn counter clockwise, while French and Russian designed helicopters spin clockwise.

However, from a piloting viewpoint there are some differences. The biggest one comes from Newton’s third law that states for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. As such, the torque applied to the rotor system causes the helicopter’s fuselage to spin the opposite direction. This is the primary reason for the tail rotor, or more accurately called the anti-torque rotor. It applies a force opposing the main rotor torque to stop the fuselage from spinning. The more power the pilot demands, the higher the torque and the more thrust the anti-torque rotor must produce to control yaw. In the cockpit, it is the pedals that control the anti-torque rotor’s pitch and therefore its thrust. What this means to the pilot is in a clockwise turning main rotor, right pedal must be added as power is increased and left pedal when power is reduced. For a counter clockwise spinning rotor system it is just the opposite.

Some of the other differences that are not as noticeable to the pilot are translating tendency and dissymmetry of lift. Translating tendency is the tendency of the helicopter to drift in the direction of tail rotor thrust. A clockwise turning rotor will cause the helicopter to drift to the left. Dissymmetry of lift refers to a difference in lift across the rotor system as one blade advances into the wind (headwind) and the other side retreats (tailwind). Again, depending on which way the rotor spins the advancing side will be on the right or left side of the rotor disc.

Electric flight

In 2010, Sikorsky Aircraft introduced “Project Firefly,” an all electric helicopter technology demonstrator based on the S-300C airframe. The intent was to have it flying a year later and set a world record for the first all electric manned helicopter flight. Unfortunately, the company did not make the target date and last year the first all electric powered helicopter flight was achieved by pilot and designer Pascal Chretien in France.

Chretien took a different approach than Sikorsky, rather than use a heavy existing airframe he designed a new lightweight highly energy efficient aircraft. As an electrical engineer and commercial rated helicopter pilot he knew what areas to target. A tail rotor can consume 10 percent of available power, so to eliminate the tail rotor Chretien used a coaxial main rotor system. He employed a second generation asymmetrical rotor blade design which provided a 19% increase in lift over his initial blades. Powered by a lightweight (128 pounds) Lithium ion polymer pouch cell battery pack the two DC powered electric motors provided a total of 43 hp, enough power to lift the required 545 pounds. Each rotor system has its own motor and yaw is controlled by varying the electrical signal to each motor.

In July and August of 2011, the aircraft made 29 flights totaling 99.5 minutes with some flights lasting 6 minutes. Then on 12 August 2011, the world’s first un-tethered manned flight of a helicopter powered only by an electric motor took place at Venelles, France. Chretien hovered above the ground for 2 minutes 10 seconds entering the Guinness World Book of Records.

 

Bleed air

Turbine powered helicopters use bleed air for heating, demisting and other systems like sand filters. Bleed air is taken from the compressor section of the engine. For example, the Arriel 1 series engines use a two stage compressor section.

Arriel 1 compressor section

Arriel 1 compressor section

The first stage uses an axial compressor to increase the speed and pressure of the ambient air.

Capture2

The second stage uses a centrifugal compressor to further compress the air and raise the temperature. This is where bleed air is taken from the engine.

Capture3

Prior to entering the combustion chamber the air is extremely hot from compression alone. For cabin heating, the bleed air is mixed with outside air to cool it.

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