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Author: Chip Wright (page 1 of 21)

Cargo versus passengers

I was recently in a friendly debate with some friends on Facebook about the merits of flying cargo versus passengers, especially in the coming years as Amazon continues its stratospheric growth. Those who fly cargo tend to be absolutely devoted to that line of work. The common refrain is that boxes don’t complain, and the chief pilot rarely calls.

What are some of the pros and cons of cargo versus passenger flying? Let’s start with cargo. Yes, it’s true that cargo doesn’t complain, unless it consists of live animals, in which case it may very well complain or lose control of its bowels. But the point is valid. Passengers do a lot of bellyaching about the airlines—some deserved, some not so much. Boxes just sit there and take up space, and they don’t care if the ride is bumpy or if the cabin is hot or cold.

Passenger carriers generally have fairly set rules on leaving early. Cargo operations tend to be more relaxed about departure times. If the airplane is full 30 minutes ahead of schedule, chances are you can leave. That may not sound like much, but if you’re scheduled to fly all night, every minute of getting done early helps.

Speaking of the schedule, that is hands-down the biggest drawback to cargo flying. The overwhelming majority of the schedule takes place “on the back side of the clock,” also known as night time. While many cargo pilots claim that you can get acclimated to the schedule, the reality is that the human body isn’t designed to be awake at night for extended periods of time. You’ll be asleep when others are awake, which can be a challenge in hotels if they’re noisy. You will be forced to flip your body around when you get home in order to have any semblance of a family life.

But if you can make it to the big boys of cargo (FedEx and UPS), the benefits are tough to beat. The pay is fantastic (it has to be to attract pilots to that kind of work) and the health insurance and retirement are superb.

Even at the second-tier carriers, such as Atlas and Southern, there have been meaningful changes and improvements. Pay is going up, and schedules are getting better. Amazon is clearly trying to get a better deal on shipping costs by controlling its own airplanes, but it remains to be seen if the company can build a stand-alone delivery system. But even if it can’t, it can produce jobs that don’t currently exist. The downside? The pay is no match for the majors, and it probably never will be, even though it’s getting better.

Passenger carriers have their own pros and cons. Passengers do indeed complain, and it’s embarrassing to see your company on the news when something bad happens. The competition is cutthroat. Working conditions at the regional airlines are a far cry from what they used to be, but they’re not where they need to be.

The schedules can be somewhat sporadic, but outside of long-haul flying, they’re not nearly as hard on the body as cargo. Pay, however, is now much more reflective of the market for pilots, especially at the regionals. For some, the availability of pass benefits and free travel makes all the difference. I like to get the words of thanks and appreciation from my passengers when we get them where they want to go. Cargo may not complain, but it doesn’t thank you, either.

And the chief pilot? He rarely calls as well. And when he does, it’s almost always a justified phone call, and it’s the same phone call his compatriot at a cargo company would make.

There are pros and cons to both cargo and passenger flying. Both offer their own rewards. If you’re not sure which one you want to do, try them both, talk to pilots on both sides, and use that information to make a decision.—Chip Wright

Will there be any more consolidation?

The airline industry has gone through several cycles of consolidation in the last 10 to 15 years: ValuJet/AirTran, AirTran/Southwest, TWA/American, USAir/America West, USAir/American, Delta/Northwest, and United/Continental at the majors. At the regionals, Republic/Chautauqua/Shuttle America, SkyWest/ASA/ExpressJet and Mesaba/Pinnacle have changed the landscape. Alaska and Virgin America are the most recent to announce plans to wed.

Of late, there have been rumors about a jetBlue merger, and there has long been talk of Spirit and Frontier. JetBlue seems to be the most interesting one, because that airline has become a major powerhouse with hubs in New York, Boston, and Orlando, along with a sizable presence in Fort Lauderdale. JetBlue also caters to both business and leisure travelers.

Historically, airline mergers have had to meet several criteria, the most important of which is the maintenance of access to travel for passengers. This became less important as Congress recognized in the last round of mergers that there was too much service at airfares that were too low. With the mega-carriers now operating, profits have soared. However, what makes a merger with jetBlue difficult is the potential choke-hold that its hubs would provide to whomever buys the airline. Congress could require some kind of a fracturing of the company in order to support a merger. JFK, the crown jewel, would be the ultimate bargaining chip.

But here’s the rub: Too much of what jetBlue does out of JFK replicates too much of what other carriers already offer from their own East Coast coast hubs. An airline would need to add service from JFK that jetBlue doesn’t have, or service that supplements existing international service from that market.

Orlando is a leisure market with lower yields, and it doesn’t lend itself well to being a southern connecting hub such as Atlanta and Charlotte, though it does provide ready access to points south in the Caribbean and South America. But, many of those are also load yield, so the problem doesn’t immediately solve itself.

Mergers also create other huge challenges, not the least of which is  bringing together drastically different work cultures and product offerings. Nothing will clog up a merger like disgruntled employees that are also being swamped with new procedures, rules, and policies. The end result is billions of dollars lost and millions of unhappy customers.

I won’t say that jetBlue won’t or can’t get caught up in a merger, but it has to be accomplished wisely, with the realization that the end product will be drastically different. I do, however, think that a couple of the ultra-low-cost carriers will be forced to eventually merge, with Spirit and Frontier being the logical choices. They compete for a segmented market offering low fares that are hard to turn into profits. Customer service is less of a concern, but it still matters. I think Allegiant will continue to be a stand-alone carrier because its niche is different, and it sells the whole travel package as a vacation, not just a ticket from A to B.

The regionals are harder to predict. Their existence depends on capacity purchase agreements with the majors. However, even SkyWest, which was long considered “the place” to work, is having trouble recruiting and retaining pilots. It’s possible that, down the road, SkyWest and Republic may have to at least do the dance.

Consolidation is probably over for now. However, in such a dynamic industry, anything can happen. Change is constant, and it stands to reason that offers will at some point be made and entertained. Whether they will be consummated will depend on the circumstances in place at the time.—Chip Wright

The Cessna SkyCourier

Cessna recently announced a partnership with FedEx to build a clean-sheet twin called the SkyCourier. Designed to service smaller markets in the FedEx network, the new high-wing twin is a classic Cessna design: It’s boxy, with a strut-supported, straight high wing and fixed gear. It won’t be fast, as it is advertising a top speed in the range of 200 knots. Odds are that the airplane will be designed for single-pilot operations in the cargo world, and will be flown with a crew for passenger flight.

Big, boxy Cessna’s tend to be easy to fly, and the SkyCourier will likely be no different. The landing gear is going to be fairly wide, so crosswind landings will be a relative breeze.

So what does this mean for wanna-be professional pilots? Back in the day, getting multiengine time was the equivalent of a crusade. Nowadays, there’s a recognition that multi time is not realistically attainable in any sufficient quantity, and regional airlines train pilots the way they want them to fly in Level D sims, after which they get extensive training when flying the line.

There is no word yet on how training will be conducted in the SkyCourier. Chances are, there will be some kind of simulator, even if it isn’t a full Level D. Sim training is safer, cheaper, more efficient, and more effective than training in an airplane. The systems on the SkyCourier are likely to be pretty simple, so the academic side of the training will probably spend more time on the avionics.

Pilots who are lucky enough to fly the SkyCourier when it hits the market will have a decided leg up on their competitors when it comes to landing certain jobs. Multiengine time will always be a valuable commodity, and it’s quite possible that pilot with relatively low total time, but a good chunk of multiengine turbine pilot-in-command time in the SkyCourier may be able to procure a job with a major airline faster.

I also suspect that the SkyCourier will find a place in the passenger world in markets where the Beech 1900 or the Twin Otter used to excel. It won’t happen in droves, but it will happen. In time, it will find work for skydiving and missionary work, and if winds up on floats, I won’t be surprised.

The lack of retractable landing gear will lower insurance premiums (not to mention maintenance costs) for operators, and won’t measurably hurt pilots looking to move on.

This airplane is a great piece of news, as it demonstrates the confidence of FedEx and Cessna in the small-town package delivery market, and injects new life into a segment in which the airplanes that are available are old and tired. Those who are going to fly are going to be very fortunate indeed.

Buddy passes

The buddy pass is one of the perks of working for an airline. It is just what it sounds like: a pass for a buddy to fly for a rock-bottom price. Virtually every airline offers them to employees, and at first glance, they sound great. You can take a friend or a family member on a trip and do so for a fraction of the price of a regular ticket. But, as with every airline ticket, there are catches.

The most important caveat is that a buddy pass is a space-available seat, meaning that your friend—or soon-to-be enemy—is only getting on if there is an empty seat and there isn’t a weight and balance restriction. In this day and age, with planes flying 80 to 90 percent full, an empty seat is hard to come by. I always tell people that the only thing a buddy pass guarantees is a positive space trip through security. That’s it.

That’s because, in terms of priority, buddy pass riders are listed behind revenue passengers; revenue passengers trying to change flights; employees being moved around by the company, employees that are non-revving; and, in some cases, retirees (a few airlines put retirees after pass riders). There is usually an exception in place if the pass rider is traveling with the employee, and that can be a significant advantage. Pass riders on their own truly are the last ones on the airplane.

Boarding last creates other issues along the way. The gate agents’ first concern is getting the flight out on time, and they’ve been known to leave some pass riders behind on occasion. Second, if you have a bag of any consequence, the overhead bins are likely to be full, and your rider may or may not be charged to check the bag, potentially increasing the cost of the trip.

Back in the day, pass riders had to rely on the employee to create the listing. Today, most airlines provide some avenue for a pass rider to look up loads and explore connecting options. As an employee, it’s up to you to make sure that the buddy can navigate the process without any help from you.

Buddy passes are charged based on either a zone formula (so much for traveling within a zone or a radius of a certain amount) or by charging so much a mile. And this is the rub, because it’s possible for the ticket price to climb to a point where the gap in price of a buddy pass and a positive-space ticket is close enough that a positive-space ticket will make more sense and provide the peace of mind of knowing you’re going to get on a flight.

Here’s an example: A friend of mine wanted a quote for a buddy pass to go to Australia. The first class rate (more on this below) for a round-trip ticket was $1,300, and around $700 for coach. But, there was a sale fare of $1,000 round trip, and my suggestion was to just buy a ticket, especially since it was such a long trip with few options. Speaking of paying for a buddy pass, most of them are payroll deductible, so make sure you get paid ahead of time, and settle up after the flight if the price varies.

But the biggest issue with buddy passes is making sure that everyone understands the rules (including you, as the sponsoring employee).
Unfortunately, too many people don’t seem to understand the limitations of flying stand-by.

In certain markets, giving someone a buddy pass is almost cruel (think Florida for spring break, or Hawaii any time). Flexibility is key, and the rules vary from one airline to another. For example, some airlines will allow you to list for a first-class seat, but they’ll put you in economy if that’s the only section with seats, and charge you accordingly. However, you may not be allowed to list for coach and then go to first class if a seat opens up there. This happens a lot on international flights, so pay attention to the rules for listing.

Dress code is important as well. United made the news about a year ago when a couple of pass riders were denied boarding because they were in violation of the dress code for pass riders. Most of these rules are available in a PDF format, so print them out for your buddies and also email them so that they can reference them as the get ready for the trip.

If your buddies don’t get on a flight, some systems will automatically roll them over to the next flight to that destination—but some won’t. The agent may manually do it for them—but they may not. It’s ultimately the buddy’s responsibility to figure that out.

Having flown for the airlines for more than 20 years now, I’ve learned that the best piece of advice I can give you about buddy passes is this: Don’t use them. Too many things can go wrong, and too often somebody says they “have to get there,” and that’s a sure-fire sign they need to buy a ticket. And too often the buddy doesn’t understand or respect the rules, and the person who gets in trouble is the employee.

The one exception I make is that I will give buddy passes to someone who used to work for an airline or has used them and is familiar with the process, the risks, and isn’t going to lose any sleep if they don’t make their flight.

If you insist on using buddy passes, be aware of the rules. And don’t say that I didn’t warn you.—Chip Wright

New drug tests

Drug testing is a fact of life at the airlines. You can count on being tested as a new hire, and then you’ll be subjected to random testing for the rest of your career. The FAA requires that 25 percent of pilots, chosen at random, get tested annually. The airline handles the details, or perhaps the testing company it contracts with to process the sample collections.

The standard profile calls for alcohol, marijuana, and several illegal recreational drugs. Recently, however, natural and synthetic opioids were added to the list. This is clearly in response to the national opioid epidemic, but it isn’t really a surprise. Used as intended, opioids such as Percocet, Oxycontin, et cetera, are extremely effective anti-pain medications used to treat various injuries or to ease recovery from some surgical procedures.

Unfortunately, these medicines are also extremely addictive, and as evidenced by the large number of deaths the last several years, they are too easy to acquire (in fact, NBC News did a segment showing how easy it was to order synthetic opioids online and have them shipped to your home). The FAA has added such testing not so much to catch pilots in the act, but as a deterrent. In my experience, most pilots are tested after they are finished flying. I’ve yet to see a test administered before a trip. It wouldn’t matter in the sense that it takes several days to get the results back, but if a pilot is tested before he or she flies and then comes up positive, it could create a public relations nightmare for the company.

If you’re ever prescribed one of these medications, you can minimize the risks of a positive test fairly easily. First, ask if something else might work just as effectively. If not, ask for the minimum number of pills that you might need, and then only take them when you absolutely need them. Second, ask detailed questions about how long you need to allow the remnants of the last dosage to leave your system. Whatever that time is, added another 48 hours before you return to work. Third, read the enclosed literature, or search the manufacturer’s website for more detailed information. Better yet, contact the manufacturer directly and ask them how long you need to wait to ensure a passed drug test.

If you’re flying internationally, you should also be aware that some countries have far more rigid rules with respect to the presence of alcohol. The United Kingdom is famous for this, and they’ve recently added some enhanced procedures to prevent pilots from flying under the influence. Keep this in mind if you plan to imbibe a bit while you’re on a trip.

There is very little leeway for flying with any hint of drugs in your system, and the rules can vary wildly from one country to the next. Play it safe, and if there is any chance you might have any in your system, ground yourself until you can be sure you’re completely clean.—Chip Wright

Applying the news

The past few months have seen a number of high profile people lose their jobs following allegations of sexual harassment or sexual assault. Harvey Weinstein, Bill O’Reilly, Charlie Rose, and most recently, Matt Lauer, all have been forced aside. If public figures are being exposed for illegal behavior, I have no doubt that average people are now beginning to deal with the same thing.

Working at the airlines means working in a very dynamic environment in which the potential for getting in trouble is most definitely there. Most pilots are male, and most flight attendants are female. Gate agents and ramp agents tend to be a mix. There is tremendous opportunity to meet a lot of great people, and it’s very easy to begin flirting or joking around, especially when you’re part of a crew that will be together for several days at a time. You share a work space, and when the day is over, you head to the same hotel, and often end up eating together. Things happen.

In 20 years as an airline pilot, I’ve seen and heard things I wish I hadn’t. A first officer I flew with groped a flight attendant on an overnight—in Canada. The same FO groped another flight attendant on an elevator in an airport. There were no witnesses, but his behavior was well known; one flight attendant I knew would not be alone with him on the airplane. I knew of flight attendants who had reputations that may or may not have been deserved, and of pilots who were known to push the limits of acceptable social behavior.

I’ll be surprised if every airline doesn’t mandate some form of sexual assault/harassment training. In 16 years at a regional, I never received any. But it’s time that we all get it. We work in close quarters with each other, and too often a joke or a gesture is ill-received or goes too far, and it too often puts someone else in the middle, uncomfortable and unsure of what to do. And just as important as learning what is and is not OK, it’s also important to discuss and train employees about the ramifications of making false accusations. This, too, is something I’ve unfortunately seen run its course, and it has no place at all in any work environment.

I’m not one to suggest that pilots shouldn’t date each other, or that pilots and flight attendants shouldn’t date or marry. But it’s critically important that proper boundaries be respected, and interpersonal behavior be kept totally professional in the work place, with any romantic interest (or disinterest) clearly stated and understood. If a relationship doesn’t work out, both parties need to be able to walk away and remain professional.—Chip Wright

Scheduling nightmare

As I wrote this, American Airlines was dealing with a crisis of its own making. Due to a computer glitch, they had a scenario in which more than 15,000 flights might not have been staffed between December 17 and January 1—one of the most important travel periods of the year. How, you might ask, does this happen?

Every airline has some form of trip trading, drops, pickups, et cetera, that pilots and flight attendants can use to adjust their schedule when the monthly lines come out. Some airlines are more flexible than others, but all have rules, policies and procedures in place to ensure adequate staffing.

Each airline defines “adequate” differently, and what one company feels would be a razor-thin or negative staffing model might be one that another embraces. Generally speaking, the models are based on known assumptions as well as a few guesses. Companies will use historical data to figure out how many employees are likely to call out sick, how many of those sick calls will come from line holders versus reserves, how many will run into issues with commuting, and how many extras are needed based on potential bad weather. There is also a bit of plain guessing involved.

As long as the computer software shows that staffing will be sufficient, a fair amount of leeway will be given in schedule modifications. Crews can drop, add, and trade based on the rules in a particular union contract. I don’t know all of the details involved in the American fiasco, but somewhere a human being screwed up, and those flights suddenly were understaffed by at least one pilot.

Every union contract has language in it that deals with scheduling snafus after the schedules are awarded, and generally the company has to eat the mistake. This situation, however, is different. Nobody can afford to have thousands, or even hundreds, of flights get cancelled over Christmas. It’s in the best interest of both sides to work out a deal that entices pilots to pick up as much of the flying as possible. Some won’t, as they may never have been off for Christmas or are certain they won’t be home for Christmas next year. But many will come in, especially if a monetary incentive is offered.

This story is a big deal because of the scope of the problem and the time of year, but it’s by no means unique or unheard of. I was at Comair in 2005 when the scheduling software failed, and more than 1,100 flights were cancelled (also over Christmas). I’ve also seen other issues come up that threatened scheduling integrity, and I’ve learned that the software that handles all of this is incredibly complex, and sometimes, a problem comes up because of a hole in the code that simply needed the right circumstances to become known.

I’m sure American will power through this, but it’s a lesson all can learn from: Take nothing for granted, and when it comes to the holidays, always ask for them off. You just never know when something will work in your favor.—Chip Wright

Medical events

I recently worked a flight on which a passenger fell ill. Actually, the passenger fell down, as in passed out. The phone call from the cabin became the first of many, and it kept us pretty busy as we flew to Vegas. Medical events don’t happen every day for each crew, but they’re pretty common.

As you might expect, the flight attendants immediately asked the passengers if a qualified medical professional was on board. In this instance, there were two of them. After the passenger was returned to her seat and regained consciousness, they questioned her about how she felt, her overall health, and any medications she might have been using. This took several minutes, but once they had some useful information, they called us. We, in turn, contacted the company and had them patch us through to MedLink.

MedLink is a service provided by contracted medical professionals to the airlines. When a medical event develops on board, the doctors at MedLink will talk to the pilots, collect the information they need, and make a recommendation about either diverting or continuing to the destination. This service can be used 24 hours a day, seven days a week, anywhere on the planet. The doctors also have a database handy that will allow them to quickly determine which medical facilities might be available for a particular issue. On a domestic flight, this might seem like overkill, but on international flights over sparsely populated areas or third world countries, this information can be critical.

In our case, it helped that we had medical professionals on board whocould help process the information from the passenger and provide an objective, professional analysis of her condition. In our case, we split the various communications duties between us. I handled ATC communications and took the calls from the cabin while the captain handled communications with the company and MedLink. Had the ATC workload become too great, I would have simply asked them to stand by. Once the company and MedLink were taken care of, I stuck with ATC and the captain took over all secondary communications.

MedLink and the folks in the cabin recommended that we press on based on the passenger’s condition. We consulted with the company and the doctors on the ground to determine the best diversion alternates for our situation if the need might arise. We were flying over an open array of farmland with no large cities immediately available. For several minutes, the best option would actually be behind us. Beyond that, we could at least deviate forward.

I’ve been lucky. My medical events have been relatively rare, and in all cases, we’ve been able to make it to the destination. Eventually I won’t have any choice but to divert. But, with the help from the doctors on the ground, I can make sure the airport I choose will give my passenger the best chance of a good outcome, and I won’t have to make that decision alone.—Chip Wright

Moving up

My company just finished a bid window for positions in various airplanes in various bases throughout the company. This can be a confusing process, so here’s a brief explanation of how it works.

Airlines have to look at various factors when it comes to determining how many pilots it needs and where it needs them. The easiest variable to predict is retirement, since it’s fixed at 65 years of age. After that, the airline has to look at the projected flying (referred to as “block hours”) that it needs to cover. This can be either short term or it can be long term, which might go out 12 to 18 months. There will be some variation that isn’t predicted, but most of the forecasting is fairly accurate, based on previous travel data, as well as known demand going forward.

Things get complicated when there will be a mix of fleet types involved, and a decision needs to be made to commit to one type of airplane. Sometimes, it doesn’t matter. Sometimes the expense drives the equation.

For instance, when Continental and United merged, the airline had to decide how to split the narrow-body flying between the United Airbus fleet and the CAL 737 fleet. Eventually, the decision was made to limit the ‘Bus to domestic and over-land flying only, and the 737 would fly all of the small narrow-body over-water routes. This was important, because it meant that the company could take all of the over-water equipment out of the Airbus, simplify maintenance procedures, crew training, et cetera. However, it also changed the way the airplanes would be allocated, which would mean a shift in staffing at most bases.

When something negative happens, a displacement occurs. That could be an airplane being retired from service, a base closure, a fleet transfer, or a furlough. Those pilots will follow established procedures to determine where they will wind up next.

When something positive happens, positions open up and pilots can bid. Usually, pilots who have been displaced get first dibs on a new position, but not always. The company can usually announce certain openings with a fair amount of certainty, but there is always an element of the unknown. For instance, if 10 new airplanes are being delivered, that is usually 100 new positions. However, pilots may opt to transfer, retire early, or use various mechanisms in a contract to bid for something, but to delay training.

Some of the guesswork is taken out because the company can look at previous bid runs to see what the pilot behavior is most likely to be. Again, this can be done fairly accurately, but not always. When a company is doing a lot of hiring, it can’t always predict the behavior of junior pilots. For this and other reasons, there are usually mandatory freeze periods after training in a new airplane. Typically, a pilot in new equipment has to wait 24 months before changing equipment or seats.

Movement is based on seniority, but when a number of freezes are holding senior pilots back, junior pilots can sneak in the back door to get a seat they may not have otherwise been able to hold. The common adage is simple: Don’t bid it if you don’t want it, because you just might get it!—Chip Wright

Hotel Issues

Living life out of a suitcase is not without its challenges. If you talk to any number of pilots (or flight attendants, for that matter), you’ll hear some common themes when it comes to hotels. These issues aren’t in any particular order, and each carries a certain amount of weight with each person. That said, they are all problems at some point or another, and if you’re interested in the airline lifestyle, you have to be ready for each curveball.

Transportation: One of the most common complaints is that of unreliable transportation. This is usually a bigger issue when the hotel is providing the ride, since they also have to accommodate other guests as well. Shuttles usually run on a schedule, but not always. What is very frustrating is waiting for one that is supposed to be waiting when you come out of the terminal, especially late at night after a long day of flying. This is much less of an issue when the transportation is contracted out to a third-party vendor, but even then it can still happen. That said, this is much less of an issue in the day and age of the smart phone, since apps make it much easier for drivers or front desk clerks to keep tabs on your flight. And that goes both ways: If the van can’t run, you can always take an Uber.

Room readiness: This is a bigger issue on those rare days when you finish early in the morning, and the housekeeping staff is still keeping house. If the wait is going to be of any real consequence, the hotels will usually comp a free meal to the crew. Along the same lines is the rare occasion when you walk into a room that hasn’t been cleaned yet, or is currently occupied, thus requiring another trip to the front desk. It’s worth noting that rooms not being ready upon arrival is pretty common in Europe, since most U.S. arrivals are coming off of red-eyes.

Noise: For some, this is the biggest problem of all, and airlines usually have language in their contracts with the hotel that stipulate certain rooms for crews to minimize noise. The most common culprits are the elevators, ice machines, and people who are drunk, belligerent, or inconsiderate. Often, hotels with a lot of crews will isolate the crews on certain floors, away from the rest of the guests, but it isn’t always possible. Noise can be a major issue for cargo crews, but it’s also a problem when you have an early wake-up and need to go to bed early. Sometimes, it’s just unavoidable: New Year’s Eve, the Fourth of July, and certain local celebrations.

Air conditioning: This might be my own biggest pet peeve, but not being able to get the room comfortable can be a major source of frustration, especially if the hotel is set up on a single temperature based on the time of year.

Everyone has his or her own definition of what makes for a great or a lousy hotel, and in this line of work, you’ll become an expert on hotel-ology and issues. You’ll also find yourself making your vacation reservations based on the experiences you’ve had at work. The hotels generally do a great job of trying to meet the needs of the crews. When they don’t, you need to use the appropriate channels to let those in charge know that the hotel is substandard.

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