A two-blade or semi-rigid rotor system (such as the Robinson or some Bell series helicopters) is susceptible to a phenomenon called mast bumping. To avoid mast bumping it is important to fully understand the limitations and performance capability of this type of rotor system.
In order to produce thrust a helicopter’s rotor system must be loaded. Controlled by the cyclic, the swash plate changes the pitch angle on each blade separately. This creates an imbalance of thrust across the rotor disc forcing the disc to tilt, which causes the helicopter to roll or pitch in the desired direction.
Pushing the cyclic forward following a rapid climb or even in level flight places the helicopter in a low G (feeling of weightlessness) flight condition. In this unloaded condition rotor thrust is reduced and the helicopter is nose low and tail high. With the tail rotor now above the helicopter’s center of mass, the tail rotor thrust applies a right rolling moment to the fuselage (in a counter-clockwise turning rotor system). This moment causes the fuselage to roll right and the instinctive reaction is to counter it with left cyclic. However, with no rotor thrust there is no lateral control available to stop the right roll and the rotor hub can contact the mast. If contact is severe enough it will result in a mast failure and/or blade contact with the fuselage.
In order to recover the rotor must be reloaded before left cyclic will stop the right roll. To reload the rotor immediately apply gentle aft cyclic and when the weightless feeling stops, use lateral cyclic to correct the right roll.
The best practice is to exercise caution when in turbulent air and always use great care to avoid putting the helicopter in a low-G condition.