Archive for December, 2009

Above reproach?

Wednesday, December 30th, 2009

Commenting on my gross weight blog, Harold wrote:

“Leave the flying to he who is in the cockpit and the finger-pointing blogs to another publication please.”

That got me thinking, when is it (if at all) appropriate to comment, criticize, or even intervene on another pilots actions or behavior? I understand and agree with Harold to a point, but I don’t believe the complete answer is all that clear.

I have studied and written about helicopter accidents for many years. I think most of them have a lesson that can help us all be better pilots. I try to write about these in a way that states the facts without expressly passing judgment (gross weight included) and let the readers draw what they want from the situation. Believe me, I have made my share of mistakes but I have been lucky because they didn’t result in an accident. I have viewed them as learning experiences, because had something been just a little different I might not have been so lucky. I like to tell people that I can’t promise I won’t make a mistake, but I can promise I won’t make the same one twice. Having studied many accidents it is clear that there are no new accidents only the same ones repeated over and over, just in a different manner.

I also believe that simply being a licensed pilot does not make you above reproach. Listed below are three examples of pilot behavior that other people knew was dangerous. A link to the complete NTSB report is included because all the details can’t be listed here.

A pilot flying a news helicopter was well known as a hotdog and the photographer riding with him had expressed concern. His last radio transmission was “watch this” as he pulled the helicopter vertical and severed the tail boom killing himself and the photographer.

http://www.ntsb.gov/ntsb/brief.asp?ev_id=20001212X20685&key=1

A very experienced tour pilot flying in the Grand Canyon was well known for being a skilled pilot and for his aggressive flying. He had earned the nickname “Kamikaze.” At high density altitude he slammed into a canyon wall killing himself and six passengers.

http://www.ntsb.gov/publictn/2007/AAB0703.pdf

A pilot continued to fail phase checks, check rides, and pre-employment rides. He eventually got a job where his flight skills were not evaluated prior to being hired. He crashed an R22 killing himself and a passenger on an introductory flight.

http://www.ntsb.gov/ntsb/brief.asp?ev_id=20060228X00255&key=1

I really appreciate all the professional comments that people post. So if this subject interests you please take the time to read all the details and let us all know your thoughts. I believe that approaching this topic in the correct way can be a powerful learning tool for those so inclined to listen.

My intent is not to point fingers but to get pilots thinking about how easily an accident can happen. I know that reviewing accidents has helped me be a better pilot. However, I am very curious if other pilots find this helpful.

One final thought. I have been involved as an expert witness for helicopter accident cases in court and believe me the intense scrutiny pilots endure is not pleasant. Seeing that has given me another reason to believe that being ultra conservative to avoid an accident is well worth it.

Wire strike protection

Thursday, December 10th, 2009

I fly a Bell 206 JetRanger helicopter as a demonstration aircraft for my company’s autopilot and glass cockpit systems. It is equipped with a Wire Strike Protection System (WSPS) and many times I am asked what it is and how it works.

Bell 206 with Wire Strike Protection

Bell 206 with Wire Strike Protection

The system on the Bell 206 has three main components: an upper cutter, lower cutter, and deflectors. Each cutter has a deflector that forces the wire into sharp high-tensile steel blades (they are rubber coated to prevent inadvertent injury to service personnel). An additional deflector strip runs vertically between the pilot and copilot windscreens to guide the wire to the upper cutter. On different helicopters other deflectors are mounted as necessary to protect critical areas. For example, on the toes of the skids to force a wire to go under the helicopter and stop it from getting caught between the skid gear and the fuselage.

It is a passive protection system that reduces the chances of an accident in the event that the helicopter is flown into horizontally strung wires. The key phrase is “reduces the chances” as the system is not 100-percent effective. In order to work properly the helicopter needs forward speed; faster speeds increase the probability of cutting the wire. Also the level of effectiveness is a function of several other factors including where the wire impacts the fuselage, the cable tension, and the diameter of the wire.

The US Army evaluated the WSPS by performing pendulum swing tests using a Bell OH-58 (basically a military version of the Bell 206). The tests went well and they adopted the system for use on U.S. Army helicopters. Since then several Army helicopters have hit wires that were then cut by the system resulting in no injuries and minimal to no aircraft damage. Several civilian helicopters equipped with the WSPS have cut wires and avoided an accident as well.

Of course the best protection from wire strikes is prevention. Some things to consider are only flying below 500 agl when it’s necessary, looking for poles because they are easier to spot than wires and when you need to fly low over wires cross at the poles or supporting structures. Additionally, when landing in unapproved areas be sure to perform a complete aerial reconnaissance. If your helicopter is equipped with wire strike protection it should be viewed as a last line of defense.

Gross weight

Wednesday, December 2nd, 2009

 

 

I was in a pilot lounge at a heliport where an operator was giving sightseeing rides when a pilot returned to the loading area after getting fuel. The loaders brought out five passengers and I heard the pilot say over the radio that they put too much fuel onboard and he could only take four passengers. Right then another pilot who worked for the sightseeing operation jumped up and said, “No, don’t take the passenger back. I’ll do the flight.” He ran out and told the pilot he would take over so the pilot could take a break. As I watched the helicopter lift off, the guy standing next to me (who was not a pilot) said, “Now there goes a real pilot.” I looked at him waiting for him to crack a smile or give me some signal he was kidding. He was serious.

 

I have known helicopter pilots who don’t think too much about gross weight. If it can hover, it will fly fine they would say.

 

Case in point, according to the NTSB the pilot of a Bell 206L departing on a sightseeing flight on a hot summer day lifted the helicopter to a hover and started a takeoff run. The pilot said it felt like the helicopter did not have full power and it did not gain altitude as it neared the end of the heliport. The tail rotor struck the edge of the pier. The helicopter then hit the water, the pilot deployed the floats, and the helicopter rolled inverted.

 

 

When the pilot was questioned about the lack of engine power, he stated that sometimes dirt or dust could lodge in the fuel system and then dislodge from the impact. When asked if the helicopter was overweight, the pilot stated no, because he was able to hover with an indicated turbine outlet temperature (TOT) of 720C and 92-percent torque.

 

Regarding the helicopter’s weight and balance, the pilot stated that he did not ask passengers their weight and did not have a scale at the heliport. Rather, he estimated the weight and balance. For the accident flight, he estimated 150 lb. per person, as there were three male passengers and three female passengers. After the accident, an FAA inspector questioned the passengers about their weights. The passengers reported their weights as 132 lb., 176 lb., 187 lb., 207 lb., 210 lb., and 213 lb. In addition, the pilot weighed about 190 lb. Although the pilot estimated 150 lb. per passenger, the average weight of the passengers was approximately 188 lbs. Those passengers plus fuel made the helicopter about 250 lbs. over gross weight at the time of the accident, not including the weight of clothing, personal effects, and baggage.

 

The FAA puts the standard average weight for operators with a no-carry-on bag program to 184 lb. in the summer and 189 lb. in the winter.